African elephant species now Endangered and Critically Endangered – IUCN Red List

Following population declines over several decades due to poaching for ivory and loss of habitat, the African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) is now listed as Critically Endangered and the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.


Established in 1964, the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global extinction risk status of animal, fungus and plant species.

The IUCN Red List is a critical indicator of the health of the world’s biodiversity. Far more than a list of species and their status, it is a powerful tool to inform and catalyse action for biodiversity conservation and policy change, critical to protecting the natural resources we need to survive.

India became a State Member of IUCN in 1969, through the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC). Four of 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots: The Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the North-East, and the Nicobar Islands, can be found in India. 


Grasslands have many names—prairies in North America, Asian steppes, savannahs and veldts in Africa, Australian rangelands, and pampas, llanos and cerrados in South America. But t

A grassland ecosystem is a dry area of land dominated by grasses. They are all places where there is too little rain for trees to grow in great numbers. Instead, these lands are covered in grasses and grass-like plants

Grasslands are subdivided into two types, namely:

Tropical Grasslands

Savannah, Steppes, Great Plains of the Midwest, Palouse Prairie, and Prairies are the best examples of tropical grasslands. These regions are warm throughout the year, followed by dry and wet seasons. They receive an average annual rainfall ranging between 30 and 35 inches. These tropical grasslands are characterized by tall grasses or relatively short grasses.

Temperate Grasslands

These grasslands are similar to tropical grasslands, except for the climatic conditions. They have cold winters and warm summers with 30 and 35 inches of annual rainfall. Shrublands are the best example of temperate grasslands.

Grasslands of the World

SteppeEurope and North Asia
VeldSouth Africa
CanteburyNew Zealand
SavannahAfrica and Australia
TaigaEurope and Asia
SelvasSouth America